The examination of the combine harvester work showed that up to 70% of its energy is spent on the deformation of straw and its communication, that is a great energy loss. The existent thechnology of combine harvesting also brings to the loss of 40% raised grai crop. Combine harvesters are expensive, insecure, have a low productivity and can work only during dry weather.
To harvest grain-crops of all kinds we suggest an aggregate technological system for a speed and economical harvesting of cereal crops by the method of combing ears from sterns, their thrashing and production of the feeding meal from the empty glume and screenings. The system is based on the method of grain combing for the thrashing of the grain-crops and grinding of wastes into a feeding meal (author - P.Chuksin). To comb the grain-crops there have been developed an attachment to the plant, which weights less than 500 kg and is easy to be installed on the plant. It works as a carrier with a bunker and a feeder of the combing attachment. The suggeste method is done without considerable deformation of the straw and its following communication; it provides with a high rate of harvesting and a reduction of power inputs and losses. It should be mentioned that in 1991 the similar works began in England, where a mashine for grain harvesting with a combing header (a drum with cogs) was produced. The major drawback of the combing header is its efficiency only using dry sterns of the grain-crops, because wet and old sterns wind round the drum. Unlike the English drum header the suggested combing carrier with cogs showed a high efficeincy on dry, wet and old sterns.
The suggested multi-purpose system for the speed harvesting of the grain-crops consists of 3 main units:
- an attachment combing ears, which increase the productivity of the plant in 2,5-3 times;
- a rotary threshing machine for the thrashing of the combed ears, whci combines processes of thrashing, the screening of the empty glume, small admixtures, ill-conditioned grains and the separation of the grain with cost per unit of 10-15 kilowatt-hout per tonn;
- a mill for crushing after-harvesting wastes and wastes of thrashing into feeding meal, power inputs - 15-25 kilowatt-hour per tonn.
The simplicity, effectiveness and high productivity of the suggested system allow to reduce spending on the harvesting of grain-crops with the reduction of losses while harvesting and thrashing, to spend less time for the harvesting and to produce high-quality feed components on the spot - flour from the empty glume and sifted-out ill-conditioned grain. The combing mashine is multi-purpose: it quickly ans easy combs ears from sterns of any gran-crops and with any humidity. The advantage of the suggested system for the speed harvesting and processing of grain-crops is in the following:
- the combing attachment increase the efficiency of the plant in 2,5-3 times and consequently less time is spent for the harvesting;
- the simplicity and low price of the attachment is combined with its universality and safety;
- the high quality and reduction of losses;
- the production of cheap high-quality components of feeds from wastes;
- high effectiveness of all production operations.
Taking into consideration all characteristics the suggested system of plants is the new generation of resources-economy methods, mashines and technologies for the harvesting and primary processing of grain-crops.